The Fly Trap (Possibly NSFW)

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thrawn

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XXXI. The Possibility of a “Finite” and Yet “Unbounded” Universe


BUT speculations on the structure of the universe also move in quite another direction. The development of non-Euclidean geometry led to the recognition of the fact, that we can cast doubt on the infiniteness of our space without coming into conflict with the laws of thought or with experience (Riemann, Helmholtz). These questions have already been treated in detail and with unsurpassable lucidity by Helmholtz and Poincaré, whereas I can only touch on them briefly here. 1
In the first place, we imagine an existence in two-dimensional space. Flat beings with flat implements, and in particular flat rigid measuring-rods, are free to move in a plane. For them nothing exists outside of this plane: that which they observe to happen to themselves and to their flat “things” is the all-inclusive reality of their plane. In particular, the constructions of plane Euclidean geometry can be carried out by means of the rods, e.g. the lattice construction, considered in Section XXIV. In contrast to ours, the universe of these beings is two-dimensional; but, like ours, it extends to infinity. In their universe there is room for an infinite number of identical squares made up of rods, i.e. its volume (surface) is infinite. If these beings say their universe is “plane,” there is sense in the statement, because they mean that they can perform the constructions of plane Euclidean geometry with their rods. In this connection the individual rods always represent the same distance, independently of their position. 2
Let us consider now a second two-dimensional existence, but this time on a spherical surface instead of on a plane. The flat beings with their measuring-rods and other objects fit exactly on this surface and they are unable to leave it. Their whole universe of observation extends exclusively over the surface of the sphere. Are these beings able to regard the geometry of their universe as being plane geometry and their rods withal as the realisation of “distance”? They cannot do this. For if they attempt to realise a straight line, they will obtain a curve, which we “three-dimensional beings” designate as a great circle, i.e. a self-contained line of definite finite length, which can be measured up by means of a measuring-rod. Similarly, this universe has a finite area, that can be compared with the area of asquare constructed with rods. The great charm resulting from this consideration lies in the recognition of the fact that the universe of these beings is finite and yet has no limits. 3
But the spherical-surface beings do not need to go on a world-tour in order to perceive that they are not living in a Euclidean universe. They can convince themselves of this on every part of their “world,” provided they do not use too small a piece of it. Starting from a point, they draw “straight lines” (arcs of circles as judged in three-dimensional space) of equal length in all directions. They will call the line joining the free ends of these lines a “circle.” For a plane surface, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, both lengths being measured with the same rod, is, according to Euclidean geometry of the plane, equal to a constant value , which is independent of the diameter of the circle. On their spherical surface our flat beings would find for this ratio the value

i.e. a smaller value than , the difference being the more considerable, the greater is the radius of the circle in comparison with the radius R of the “world-sphere.” By means of this relation the spherical beings can determine the radius of their universe (“world”), even when only a relatively small part of their world-sphere is available for their measurements. But if this part is very small indeed, they will no longer be able to demonstrate that they are on a spherical “world” and not on a Euclidean plane, for a small part of a spherical surface differs only slightly from a piece of a plane of the same size. 4
Thus if the spherical-surface beings are living on a planet of which the solar system occupies only a negligibly small part of the spherical universe, they have no means of determining whether they are living in a finite or in an infinite universe, because the “piece of universe” to which they have access is in both cases practically plane, or Euclidean. It follows directly from this discussion, that for our sphere-beings the circumference of a circle first increases with the radius until the “circumference of the universe” is reached, and that it thenceforward gradually decreases to zero for still further increasing values of the radius. During this process the area of the circle continues to increase more and more, until finally it becomes equal to the total area of the whole “world-sphere.” 5
Perhaps the reader will wonder why we have placed our “beings” on a sphere rather than on another closed surface. But this choice has its justification in the fact that, of all closed surfaces, the sphere is unique in possessing the property that all points on it are equivalent. I admit that the ratio of the circumference c of a circle to its radius r depends on r, but for a given value of r it is the same for all points of the “world-sphere”; in other words, the “world-sphere” is a “surface of constant curvature.” 6
To this two-dimensional sphere-universe there is a three-dimensional analogy, namely, the three-dimensional spherical space which was discovered by Riemann. Its points are likewise all equivalent. It possesses a finite volume, which is determined by its “radius” (22R3). Is it possible to imagine a spherical space? To imagine a space means nothing else than that we imagine an epitome of our “space” experience, i.e. of experience that we can have in the movement of “rigid” bodies. In this sense we can imagine a spherical space. 7
Suppose we draw lines or stretch strings in all directions from a point, and mark off from each of these the distance r with a measuring-rod. All the free end-points of these lengths lie on a spherical surface. We can specially measure up the area (F) of this surface by means of a square made up of measuring-rods. If the universe is Euclidean, then F = 4r2; if it is spherical, then F is always less than 4r2. With increasing values of r, F increases from zero up to a maximum value which is determined by the “world-radius,” but for still further increasing values of r, the area gradually diminishes to zero. At first, the straight lines which radiate from the starting point diverge farther and farther from one another, but later they approach each other, and finally they run together again at a “counter-point” to the starting point. Under such conditions they have traversed the whole spherical space. It is easily seen that the three-dimensional spherical space is quite analogous to the two-dimensional spherical surface. It is finite (i.e. of finite volume), and has no bounds. 8
It may be mentioned that there is yet another kind of curved space: “elliptical space.” It can be regarded as a curved space in which the two “counter-points” are identical (indistinguishable from each other). An elliptical universe can thus be considered to some extent as a curved universe possessing central symmetry. 9
It follows from what has been said, that closed spaces without limits are conceivable. From amongst these, the spherical space (and the elliptical) excels in its simplicity, since all points on it are equivalent. As a result of this discussion, a most interesting question arises for astronomers and physicists, and that is whether the universe in which we live is infinite, or whether it is finite in the manner of the spherical universe. Our experience is far from being sufficient to enable us to answer this question. But the general theory of relativity permits of our answering it with a moderate degree of certainty, and in this connection the difficulty mentioned in Section XXX finds its solution.



ah, the stuff that i read during the day
 

theacoustician

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I will have you know that searching "erage blondie topless" results in a link titled "world gay escort dating free of charge". Explain that one.
 

theacoustician

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Beakmanb.jpg
 

thrawn

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It is well known that chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation present in sunlight is responsible for the induction of most nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in humans. Wavelengths in the UV-B (290–320 nm) region of the solar spectrum are absorbed into the skin, producing erythema, burns, and eventually skin cancer. NMSC is the most common type of human cancer. Recent surveys indicate that around one million new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed each year in the United States, about 70% of which result from repeated exposure of the skin to sunlight. Laboratory studies have shown that UV-B region of the solar spectrum is responsible for this effect. The first step in UV skin carcinogenesis involves the induction of DNA damage. Occasional mistakes during the repair of this damage leads to the incorporation of wrong bases into the genetic material. The DNA damage that is left unrepaired may also disrupt cellular processes by obstructing the DNA and RNA synthesizing machineries and introduce wrong bases into the DNA. These types of mistakes often result in mutation leading to loss or inappropriate expression of affected genes. Recent studies indicate that genetic alterations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene play an important role in the development of skin cancer. The p53 protein is also involved in programmed cell death (apoptosis), and it has been proposed that p53 serves as a “guardian of the genome” by aiding DNA repair or causing elimination of cells with excessive DNA damage. Unrepaired photoproducts in the p53 gene are transformed into mutations thereby initiating the process of carcinogenesis. Following repeated exposures to UV, keratinocytes carrying p53 mutations acquire a growth advantage by virtue of their increased resistance to apoptosis. Recent studies have shown that UV-B damaged keratinocytes (sunburn cells) are eliminated by Fas/Fas-ligand interaction and that this pathway is dysregulated during UV skin carcinogenesis resulting in accumulation of p53 mutations in DNA damaged keratinocytes. These results demonstrate a link between p53 pathway and Fas/Fas-ligand pathway and that dysregulation of both pathways can lead to the pathogenesis of UV-induced skin cancer.

Several studies have shown that UV induces unique types of p53 mutations in skin cancers at a high frequency that are not commonly found in other types of human cancer. Analogous to human skin cancers, skin cancers induced in laboratory mice by UV radiation also display UV signature p53 mutations at a high frequency. More interestingly, p53 mutations are also present in sun-exposed skin and it can serve as an indicator of prior solar exposure in humans. It has been shown that p53 mutations in mouse skin arise as early as one week of chronic UV-irradiation and the frequency of p53 mutations reach a maximum at 4–8 week of UV exposure. These results suggest that p53 mutations arise well before skin cancer development and that they can serve as a surrogate early biological endpoint in skin cancer prevention studies. In fact, it has been shown that application of SPF-15 sunscreens to mouse skin before each UV-irradiation protect mice against induction of p53 mutations as well as skin cancer development.

In addition to the p53 gene, another tumor suppressor gene known as patched (ptc) has been implicated in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). NBCCS, also called basal cell nevus syndrome or Gorlin's syndrome, is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple BCCs that appear at a young age on sun-exposed areas of the skin. Studies of NBCCS patients have shown that they have both germ-line and somatic mutations in the ptc gene. Somatic ptc mutations have been found in BCCs from otherwise normal individuals suggesting that genetic alterations in the ptc gene may also play a role in the development of BCC.

In summary, recent advances have aided in the understanding of the mechanisms by which UV radiation induces skin cancer. Continued efforts should result in a greater understanding of the genetic mechanisms involved in the function of tumor suppressor and oncogenes that are now known, as well as genes yet to be discovered. The efforts of research in skin cancer may help to increase overall awareness of the harmful effects of UV exposure and result in better methods of skin cancer prevention and treatment.
 

dbzeag

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Thrawn, will you come have dinner with me next time you are in Cleveland?

:heart:
 

thrawn

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In these deep solitudes and awful cells,
Where heav'nly-pensive contemplation dwells,
And ever-musing melancholy reigns;
What means this tumult in a vestal's veins?
Why rove my thoughts beyond this last retreat?
Why feels my heart its long-forgotten heat?
Yet, yet I love! — From Abelard it came,
And Eloisa yet must kiss the name.
 

theacoustician

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"Would now be the time to announce that I used to hide in the china cabinet and watch daddy hit mommy? I would masturbate and us my own tears as lube."

"Um, no. Not now."

"When?"

"How about 10:30am on 1-30-2010?"

"Ok, I'll schedule it in Outlook and send you a meeting notice."
 

thrawn

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Operating System Windows XP Media Center 2005 Edition
CPU Type Intel Core Duo T2600(2.16GHz)
Screen 15.4" WXGA
Memory Size 2GB DDR2
Hard Disk 100GB
Optical Drive DVD Burner (Dual Layer)
Graphics Card NVIDIA GeForce Go 7600
Video Memory 256MB
Communication Modem, Gigabit LAN and WLAN
Card slot 1 x Type II PC Card & 1 x Express Card
Dimensions 14.3" x 10.4" x 1.65"
Other Features Fingerprint reader,Secure Chip
CPU
CPU Type Intel Core Duo
CPU Speed T2600(2.16GHz)
CPU FSB 667MHz
CPU L2 Cache 2MB
Chipset
Chipset Intel 945PM
Display
Screen Size 15.4"
Wide Screen Support Yes
Display Type Wide XGA
Resolution 1280 x 800
Operating Systems
Operating System Windows XP Media Center 2005 Edition
Graphics
GPU/VPU NVIDIA Geforce Go 7600
Video Memory Dedicated 256MB
Graphic Type Dedicated Card
Hard Drive
HD Capacity 100GB
HD Interface SATA
Memory
Memory Speed DDR2 667
Memory Size 2GB
Optical Drive
Optical Drive Type DVD±R/RW
Optical Drive Interface Integrated
Optical Drive Spec Dual-Layer DVD Burner
Communications
Modem 56K
LAN 10/100/1000Mbps
WLAN 802.11b/g Wireless LAN
Ports
Card Slot 1 x Type II PC Card & 1 x Express Card
USB 3
IEEE 1394 1
Video Port 1 x VGA, 1 x S-Video TV-out
Audio Ports 1 x Microphone jack; 1 x Headphone jack
Audio
Audio Realtek ALC883 Support 8 Multi-Channels
Speaker Internal Speakers
Input Device
Keyboard Standard
Supplemental Drive
Card Reader MMC/SD/MS 3-in-1 Card Reader
Webcam Built-in 1.3 Mega Pixels CMOS Camera
Power
AC Adapter 100~240V AC, 50/60Hz universal
Battery Lithium Ion
Physical spec
Dimensions 14.3" x 10.4" x 1.65"
Features
Software Included Free Game --- Hero
Warranty
Manufacturer Warranty 1-Year Labor & Parts Standard Warranty + Lifetime Toll-Free Techsupport
 

ERage

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I would like to take this time to say that I
Will be visiting D.C in a week or 2 and I intend to
Kill all the germs in my hotel room with lysol wipes so that
You can visit me in a germ free room that is safe for
All lifeforms except germs.

can you find the hidden message? ,,|,,
 

theacoustician

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Is there a special derogatory term for "people who pretend to be men but insist on sitting to pee" or should we just call them Texans?
 
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